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This preliminary phase involved reviewing literature in a range of relevant areas, including disease-specific Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for different long-term conditions, use of PROMs in various settings, and issues and priorities for people with long-term conditions.

The research team have conducted pragmatic reviews of literature in the following areas, of relevance to the project:

Generic and Disease-Specific Patient-reported Outcome Measures

The team examined common outcomes included on PROMs used across all conditions (generic measures) and outcomes included on disease-specific PROMs.

Patient-reported Outcome Measures in Clinical Practice

The team examined research into the use of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in clinical practice. This included trials on different uses of patient feedback and PROMs in various health and social care settings.


The team examined the literature around self-management for people with long-term conditions, especially measures used to evaluate self-management or related concepts (e.g. empowerment, activation) in clinical trials and clinical practice.


The team examined literature on the nature, epidemiology and prognosis of multi-morbid long-term conditions, and service users’ and practitioners’ experiences of multi-morbidity in the context of long-term conditions.

Priorities and Outcomes of Care

The team examined the treatment and care priorities of patients and practitioners with regards to long-term conditions, investigating the literature on the priorities of those with long-term physical health conditions, those with long-term mental health conditions, and those with multi-morbid long-term health conditions.

Living with long-term conditions