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AIMS: To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participating in the LEADER cardiovascular outcomes trial using the five-dimension European Quality of Life questionnaire (EQ-5D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EQ-5D was administered every 12 months in a subset of patients from Canada, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. We compared changes in utility index scores and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores from baseline to 36 months in participants treated with liraglutide and placebo. We also assessed which complications had the greatest impact on quality of life. RESULTS: At 36 months, less deterioration in EQ-5D utility index score was seen in the liraglutide group (-0.058) than in the placebo group (-0.082; estimated treatment difference [ETD] 0.023, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.004;0.043; P = 0.020). A smaller decrease in EQ-5D VAS score was also demonstrated in the liraglutide group (-3.51) vs. the placebo group (-5.45; ETD 1.94, 95% CI 0.32;3.57; P = 0.019). The benefits of liraglutide treatment compared with placebo were driven primarily by shifts in the domains of mobility and self-care. The most influential events contributing to poorer HRQoL were stroke, heart failure, malignant neoplasm and confirmed hypoglycaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Liraglutide demonstrated a modest but significant benefit in patient-reported health status using the EQ-5D, compared with placebo. This benefit may be of clinical relevance and requires further study.

Original publication




Journal article


Diabetes Obes Metab

Publication Date





525 - 532


EQ-5D, LEADER, health-related quality of life, liraglutide, patient-reported outcomes, type 2 diabetes