Association of an APOC3 promoter variant with type 2 diabetes risk and need for insulin treatment in lean persons.
van Hoek M., van Herpt TW., Dehghan A., Hofman A., Lieverse AG., van Duijn CM., Witteman JCM., Sijbrands EJG.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An APOC3 promoter haplotype has been previously associated with type 1 diabetes. In this population-based study, we investigated whether APOC3 polymorphisms increase type 2 diabetes risk and need for insulin treatment in lean participants. METHODS: In the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort (n = 7,983), Cox and logistic regression models were used to analyse the associations and interactive effects of APOC3 promoter variants (-482C > T, -455T > C) and BMI on type 2 diabetes risk and insulin treatment. Analyses were followed by replication in an independent case-control sample (1,817 cases, 2,292 controls) and meta-analysis. RESULTS: In lean participants, the -482T allele was associated with increased risk of prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes: OR -482CT 1.47 (95% CI 1.13-1.92), -482TT 1.40 (95% CI 0.83-2.35), p = 0.009 for trend; HR -482CT 1.35 (95% CI 0.96-1.89), -482TT 1.68 (95% CI 0.91-3.1), p = 0.03 for trend, respectively. These results were confirmed by replication. Meta-analysis was highly significant (-482T meta-analysis p = 1.1 × 10(-4)). A borderline significant interaction was observed for insulin use among participants with type 2 diabetes (-482CT*BMI p = 0.06, -455TC*BMI p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: At a population-based level, the influence of APOC3 promoter variants on type 2 diabetes risk varies with the level of adiposity. Lean carriers of the -482T allele had increased type 2 diabetes risk, while such an effect was not observed in overweight participants. Conversely, in overweight participants the -455C allele seemed protective against type 2 diabetes. The interaction of the variants with need for insulin treatment may indicate beta cell involvement in lean participants. Our findings suggest overlap in the genetic backgrounds of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes in lean patients.