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Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related parameters in up to 135,367 individuals. Here we identify 75 independent genetic loci associated with one or more red blood cell phenotypes at P < 10(-8), which together explain 4-9% of the phenotypic variance per trait. Using expression quantitative trait loci and bioinformatic strategies, we identify 121 candidate genes enriched in functions relevant to red blood cell biology. The candidate genes are expressed preferentially in red blood cell precursors, and 43 have haematopoietic phenotypes in Mus musculus or Drosophila melanogaster. Through open-chromatin and coding-variant analyses we identify potential causal genetic variants at 41 loci. Our findings provide extensive new insights into genetic mechanisms and biological pathways controlling red blood cell formation and function.

Original publication

DOI

10.1038/nature11677

Type

Journal article

Journal

Nature

Publication Date

20/12/2012

Volume

492

Pages

369 - 375

Keywords

Animals, Cell Cycle, Cytokines, Drosophila melanogaster, Erythrocytes, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic Loci, Genome-Wide Association Study, Hematopoiesis, Hemoglobins, Humans, Male, Mice, Organ Specificity, Phenotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, RNA Interference, Signal Transduction