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BACKGROUND: Despite optimized risk factor control, people with prior cardiovascular disease remain at high cardiovascular disease risk. We assess the immediate- and longer-term impacts of new vascular and nonvascular events on quality of life (QoL) and hospital costs among participants in the REVEAL (Randomized Evaluation of the Effects of Anacetrapib Through Lipid Modification) trial in secondary prevention. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data on demographic and clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life (QoL: EuroQoL 5-Dimension-5-Level), adverse events, and hospital admissions during the 4-year follow-up of the 21 820 participants recruited in Europe and North America informed assessments of the impacts of new adverse events on QoL and hospital costs from the UK and US health systems' perspectives using generalized linear regression models. Reductions in QoL were estimated in the years of event occurrence for nonhemorrhagic stroke (-0.067 [United Kingdom], -0.069 [US]), heart failure admission (-0.072 [United Kingdom], -0.103 [US]), incident cancer (-0.064 [United Kingdom], -0.068 [US]), and noncoronary revascularization (-0.071 [United Kingdom], -0.061 [US]), as well as in subsequent years following these events. Myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization (CRV) procedures were not found to affect QoL. All adverse events were associated with additional hospital costs in the years of events and in subsequent years, with the highest additional costs in the years of noncoronary revascularization (£5830 [United Kingdom], $14 133 [US Medicare]), of myocardial infarction with urgent CRV procedure (£5614, $24722), and of urgent/nonurgent CRV procedure without myocardial infarction (£4674/£4651 and $15 251/$17 539). CONCLUSIONS: Stroke, heart failure, and noncoronary revascularization procedures substantially reduce QoL, and all cardiovascular disease events increase hospital costs. These estimates are useful in informing cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in secondary prevention. REGISTRATION: URL:; Unique identifier: NCT01252953; Unique identifier: ISRCTN48678192; Unique identifier: 2010-023467-18.

Original publication




Journal article


J Am Heart Assoc

Publication Date





United Kingdom, United States, cardiovascular diseases, health care costs, quality of life, secondary prevention, Aged, Humans, Cardiovascular Diseases, Heart Failure, Hospital Costs, Hospitals, Medicare, Myocardial Infarction, Quality of Life, Stroke, United Kingdom, United States