2021 ESC/EACTS Guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of valvular heart disease: Developed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) Working Groups on the diagnosis and treatment of valvular heart disease
Vahanian A., Beyersdorf F., Praz F., Milojevic M., Baldus S., Bauersachs J., Capodanno D., Conradi L., De Bonis M., De Paulis R., Delgado V., Freemantle N., Gilard M., Haugaa KH., Jeppsson A., Jüni P., Pierard L., Prendergast BD., Rafael Sádaba J., Tribouilloy C., Wojakowski W.
The True Infection Rate (TIR) in the whole population of each country and the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are unknown although they are important parameters. We devised a simple method to infer TIR and IFR based on the open data. The prevalence rate of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests among the population (Examination Rate; ER) and the positive rate of PCR tests (Infection Rate; IR) for 66 countries were picked up at a website 5 times from April 10th to June 13th, 2020, and the trajectory of each country was drawn over the IR vs. ER plot. IR and ER showed a strong negative correlation for some countries, and TIR was estimated by extrapolating the regression line when the correlation coefficient was between -0.99 and -1. True/Identified Case Ratio (TICR) and IFR were also calculated using the estimated TIR. The estimated TIR well coincided with local antibody surveys. Estimated IFR took on a wide range of values up to 10%: generally high in the Western countries. The estimated IFR of Singapore was very low (0.018%), which may be related to the reported gene mutation causing the attenuation of the viral virulence.