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Objective: To compare the consistency of frailty status measured by Fried phenotype and frailty index composed of different numbers of deficits, and their prospective associations with risk of mortality. Methods: Data of 23 615 participants from the second resurvey of the China Kadoore Biobank (CKB) was used. Fried phenotype was constructed using five phenotypes, and frailty indexes (FI) were constructed using 28 and 40 deficits, respectively. We calculated the Weighted Kappa coefficient to compare the consistency of three measures in the classification of frailty status. Cox regression was performed to analyze the association of frailty status with risk of mortality. Results: The frailty prevalence calculated by Fried phenotype, FI-28, and FI-40 were 5.4%, 7.9%, and 4.0%, respectively. The Kappa coefficients of Fried phenotype with FI-28 and FI-40 were 0.357 and 0.408, respectively. The Kappa coefficients of FI-28 and FI-40 was 0.712. During an average of (3.9±0.5) years of follow-up, 755 participants died. When Fried phenotype was used, compared with the robust participants, the prefrail and frail participants had increased risk of mortality, the multivariable-adjusted HRs were 1.60 (95%CI: 1.32-1.94) and 2.90 (95%CI: 2.25-3.73), respectively. When FI-28 was used, the corresponding HRs were 1.71 (95%CI: 1.39-2.11) and 2.52 (95%CI:1.95-3.27) for prefrail and frail participants, and when FI-40 was used, the corresponding HRs were 1.98 (95%CI:1.60-2.44) and 3.71 (95%CI: 2.80-4.91). The association of frailty status with mortality differed in different age groups, with the association stronger in younger adults than in older adults. Conclusion: Fried phenotype and frailty index constituted with different numbers of deficits showed good consistency; which can be used to well predict the risk of mortality.

Original publication




Journal article


Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi

Publication Date





1179 - 1187


Aged, Frail Elderly, Frailty, Geriatric Assessment, Humans, Phenotype, Prospective Studies