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Cardiovascular disease contributes significantly to the adverse clinical outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Numerous cardiovascular risk factors play important roles in the development of various cardiovascular complications. Of these, loss of residual renal function is regarded as one of the key cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with an increased mortality and cardiovascular death. It is also recognized that PD solutions may incur significant adverse metabolic effects in PD patients. The International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) commissioned a global workgroup in 2012 to formulate a series of recommendations regarding lifestyle modification, assessment and management of various cardiovascular risk factors, as well as management of the various cardiovascular complications including coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmia (specifically atrial fibrillation), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and sudden cardiac death, to be published in 2 guideline documents. This publication forms the first part of the guideline documents and includes recommendations on assessment and management of various cardiovascular risk factors. The documents are intended to serve as a global clinical practice guideline for clinicians who look after PD patients. The ISPD workgroup also identifies areas where evidence is lacking and further research is needed.

Original publication




Journal article


Perit Dial Int

Publication Date





379 - 387


Cardiovascular risk, anemia, dialysate calcium, dyslipidemia, glycosylated hemoglobin, hypertension, hypokalemia, inflammation, obesity, peritoneal dialysis, residual renal function, salt, volume, Adult, Cardiovascular Diseases, Disease Management, Female, Humans, Male, Metabolic Diseases, Patient Safety, Peritoneal Dialysis, Practice Guidelines as Topic, Risk Assessment, Societies, Medical, Treatment Outcome