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BACKGROUND: There are limited population-based national data on prognosis in survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), particularly on long-term survival and the risk of recurrence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Record linkage of hospital and mortality data identified 387 452 individuals in England who were admitted to hospital with a main diagnosis of AMI between 2004 and 2010 and who survived for at least 30 days. Seven years after an AMI, the risk of death from any cause in survivors of first or recurrent AMI was, respectively, 2 and 3 times higher than that in the English general population of equivalent age. For all survivors of a first AMI, the risk of a second AMI was highest during the first year and the cumulative risk increased more gradually thereafter. For men, 1- and 7-year cumulative risks were 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5-5.7) and 13.9% (95% CI, 13.7-14.1); for women, they were 7.2% (95% CI, 7.1-7.4) and 16.2% (95% CI, 16.0-16.5). Older age, higher deprivation, no revascularization procedures, and presence of comorbidities were associated with higher recurrence risk. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of both first and recurrent AMI remained at a significantly higher risk of death compared with the general population for at least 7 years after the event. For survivors of first AMI, the influence of predisposing factors for second AMI lessened with time after the initial event. The results reinforce the importance of acute clinical care and secondary prevention in improving long-term prognosis of hospitalized AMI patients.

Original publication




Journal article


Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes

Publication Date





532 - 540


Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Child, Child, Preschool, Comorbidity, England, Female, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Male, Medical Record Linkage, Middle Aged, Myocardial Infarction, Prognosis, Proportional Hazards Models, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Secondary Prevention, Socioeconomic Factors, Survivors, Time Factors, Young Adult