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The adverse psychological and social impacts of COVID-19 pandemic are well characterized, but the role of composite, modifiable lifestyle factors that may interact to mitigate these impacts is not. The effect of socioeconomic deprivation on these lifestyle risks also remains unclear. Based on a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort, we assessed the association between a combination of pre-pandemic lifestyle factors and mental health conditions during pandemic, and the contribution of deprivation to it. Composite lifestyle factors included BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sedentary time, sleep duration, and fruit and vegetable intake, with lifestyle scores and lifestyle categories calculated for each participant. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and personal well-being were assessed by validated scales during the pandemic. Socioeconomic deprivation was characterized by both individual-level (income, wealth, and education) and group-level factors (Index of Multiple Deprivation). Of the 5049 eligible participants (mean [SD] age, 68.1 [10.9] years; 57.2% were female) included in the study, 41.6% followed a favorable lifestyle, 48.9% followed an intermediate lifestyle, and 9.5% followed an unfavorable lifestyle. Compared with favorable lifestyle category, participants in the intermediate and unfavorable lifestyle category were at increased risk of mental health conditions, with the hazard ratio (HR) for trend per increment change towards unfavorable category of 1.17 (95% CI 1.09-1.26) for depression, 1.23 (1.07-1.42) for anxiety, and 1.39 (1.20-1.61) for low well-being. A significant trend of lower risk for mental health conditions with increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors was observed (P 

Original publication




Journal article


Mol Psychiatry

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