Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Over the past few decades, several anti-obesity medications have demonstrated an association with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, leading to their market withdrawal. This has caused researchers to investigate the cardiovascular safety of such medications in cardiovascular outcome trials. However, the data from these trials are limited, and their outcomes are not promising. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and past Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for weight loss, including novel diabetes medications (glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors) and non-diabetes medications, and to highlight the current designs of cardiovascular outcome trials and their importance in the evaluation of the overall safety concerns associated with these anti-obesity medications. The limitations of the trials and opportunities for improvement were also evaluated. Finally, we also briefly describe cardiovascular safety and risks in this review.

Original publication




Journal article


Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes

Publication Date





3199 - 3208


anti-obesity medication, cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular outcome trials, obesity, obesity therapy, type 2 diabetes mellitus