Severity of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection and perinatal outcomes of women admitted to hospital during the omicron variant dominant period using UK Obstetric Surveillance System data: prospective, national cohort study.
Engjom HM., Ramakrishnan R., Vousden N., Bunch K., Morris E., Simpson NAB., Gale C., O'Brien P., Quigley M., Brocklehurst P., Kurinczuk JJ., Knight M.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the severity of maternal infection when the omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant (B.1.1.529) was dominant (15 December 2021 to 14 March 2022) and describe outcomes by symptoms and vaccination status. DESIGN: Prospective, national cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System. SETTING: 94 hospitals in the UK with a consultant led maternity unit. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women admitted to hospital for any cause with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptomatic or asymptomatic infection, vaccination status by doses before admission, and severity of maternal infection (moderate or severe infection according to modified World Health Organization's criteria). RESULTS: Of 3699 women who were admitted to hospital, 986 (26.7%, 95% confidence interval 25.3% to 28.1%) had symptoms; of these, 144 (14.6%, 12.5% to 17.0%) had a moderate to severe infection, 99 (10.4%, 8.6% to 12.5%) of 953 received respiratory support, and 30 (3.0%, 2.1% to 4.3%) were admitted to an intensive care unit. Covid-19 specific drug treatment was given to 13 (43.3%) of the 30 women in intensive care. Four women with symptoms died (0.4%, 0.1% to 1.1%). Vaccination status was known for 845 (85.6%) women with symptoms; 489 (58.9%) were unvaccinated and only 55 (6.5%) had three doses. Moderate to severe infection was reported for 93 (19.0%) of 489 unvaccinated women with symptoms, decreasing to three (5.5%) of 55 after three doses. Among the 30 women with symptoms who were admitted to intensive care, 23 (76.7%) were unvaccinated and none had received three doses. CONCLUSION: Most women with severe covid-19 disease were unvaccinated and vaccine coverage among pregnant women admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 was low. Ongoing action to prioritise and advocate for vaccine uptake in pregnancy is essential. A better understanding of the persistent low use of drug treatments is an urgent priority. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 40092247.