Associations of growth from birth to puberty with blood pressure and lipid profile at ~17.5 years: evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.
Cheng TS., Leung GM., Hui LL., Leung JYY., Kwok MK., Au Yeung SL., Schooling CM.
The role of early growth in later health is controversial. We examined the associations of growth at different phases from birth to puberty with blood pressure and lipid profile at ~17.5 years. In the population-representative "Children of 1997" birth cohort, growth was measured as (i) weight-for-age z score (WAZ) at birth and WAZ gains from 0 to 2 and 2 to 8 years and (ii) body-mass-index-for-age z score (BAZ) and length/height-for-age z score (LAZ) at 3 months and BAZ and LAZ gains from 3 months to 3 years, 3 to 8 years and 8 to 14 years, based on the World Health Organization growth standards/references. Adjusted partial least squares regression was used to assess simultaneously the associations of growth with height-, age- and sex-specific systolic (SBPZ) and diastolic blood pressure z scores (DBPZ), low- (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) at ~17.5 years. Among 3410 children, higher WAZ, BAZ and LAZ gains from initial size to 8 years were associated with higher SBPZ. Higher gains in WAZ and BAZ from 2 to 8 years were consistently associated with higher DBPZ, LDL and TG and lower HDL. Lower LAZ at 3 months and higher LAZ gain from 3 months to 3 years were associated with lower HDL and higher TG. Greater growth in weight, body mass index and length/height had negative associations with blood pressure and lipid profile at ~17.5 years, but the differences by growth measure, phase and outcome suggest a complex underlying process.