Associations of Coarse Grain Intake with Undiagnosed Hypertension among Chinese Adults: Results from the China Kadoorie Biobank.
Liu X., Lai H., Mi B., Qi X., Gan W., Du H.
Whole grain intake was associated with better blood pressure control, but evidence is lacking in non-Western populations with different grain intake patterns. We aimed to determine the associations between coarse grain intake, usually considered as the best proxy of whole grain intake for Chinese diets, with blood pressure and undiagnosed hypertension using baseline data from the China Kadoorie Biobank study. After excluding participants with clinically diagnosed hypertension or use of antihypertensive dugs, 435,907 participants were included in our analysis. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure coarse grain intake frequency. Overall, 12.8% and 29.2% of the participants reported daily consumption and never consumption, respectively. With multivariable adjustments including BMI, outdoor temperature, and physical activity, higher frequency of coarse grain intake was associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in those older than 40 years, p trend < 0.05. Compared to never consumers, the odds ratio (95% CI) of hypertension was 0.78 (0.73-0.84), 0.84 (0.77-0.91), 0.91 (0.88-0.94), and 0.97 (0.95-0.99) for daily, 4-6 days/week, 1-3 days/week, and monthly groups, P trend < 0.001. Our cross-sectional study in a nationwide sample of Chinese adults suggests that higher coarse grain intake was associated with lower blood pressure and lower hypertension risk.