Quantile regression analysis reveals widespread evidence for gene-environment or gene-gene interactions in myopia development.
Pozarickij A., Williams C., Hysi PG., Guggenheim JA., UK Biobank Eye and Vision Consortium None.
A genetic contribution to refractive error has been confirmed by the discovery of more than 150 associated variants in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Environmental factors such as education and time outdoors also demonstrate strong associations. Currently however, the extent of gene-environment or gene-gene interactions in myopia is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that refractive error-associated variants exhibit effect size heterogeneity, a hallmark feature of genetic interactions. Of 146 variants tested, evidence of non-uniform, non-linear effects were observed for 66 (45%) at Bonferroni-corrected significance (P