Dietary intake of acrylamide and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
Obón-Santacana M., Slimani N., Lujan-Barroso L., Travier N., Hallmans G., Freisling H., Ferrari P., Boutron-Ruault MC., Racine A., Clavel F., Saieva C., Pala V., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Vineis P., Argüelles M., Ardanaz E., Amiano P., Navarro C., Sánchez MJ., Molina Montes E., Key T., Khaw K-T., Wareham N., Peeters PH., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Trichopoulos D., Boeing H., Kaaks R., Katzke V., Ye W., Sund M., Ericson U., Wirfält E., Overvad K., Tjønneland A., Olsen A., Skeie G., Åsli LA., Weiderpass E., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Duell EJ.
BACKGROUND: In 1994, acrylamide (AA) was classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 2002, AA was discovered at relatively high concentrations in some starchy, plant-based foods cooked at high temperatures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the dietary intake of AA and ductal adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreatic cancer (PC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort using Cox regression modeling. EPIC includes >500,000 men and women aged 35-75 at enrollment from 10 European countries. AA intake was estimated for each participant by combining questionnaire-based food consumption data with a harmonized AA database derived from the EU monitoring database of AA levels in foods, and evaluated in quintiles and continuously. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 11 years, 865 first incident adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas were observed and included in the present analysis. At baseline, the mean dietary AA intake in EPIC was 26.22 µg/day. No overall association was found between continuous or quintiles of dietary AA intake and PC risk in EPIC (HR:0.95, 95%CI:0.89-1.01 per 10 µg/day). There was no effect measure modification by smoking status, sex, diabetes, alcohol intake or geographic region. However, there was an inverse association (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.88 per 10 µg/day) between AA intake and PC risk in obese persons as defined using the body mass index (BMI, ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), but not when body fatness was defined using waist and hip circumference or their ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of AA was not associated with an increased risk of PC in the EPIC cohort.