Association between sleep duration and hypertension in southwest China: a population-based cross-sectional study.
Chang X., Chen X., Ji JS., Luo G., Chen X., Sun Q., Zhang N., Guo Y., Pei P., Li L., Chen Z., Wu X.
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is a major risk factor and cause of many non-communicable diseases in China. While there have been studies on various diet and lifestyle risk factors, we do not know whether sleep duration has an association to blood pressure in southwest China. This predictor is useful in low-resource rural settings. We examined the association between sleep duration and hypertension in southwest China. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was part of the baseline survey of a large ongoing prospective cohort study, the China Kadoorie Biobank. Participants were enrolled in 15 townships of Pengzhou city in Sichuan province during 2004-2008. PARTICIPANTS: 55 687 participants aged 30-79 years were included. Sleep duration was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or prior physician-diagnosed hypertension in hospitals at the township (community) level or above. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 25.17%. The percentages of subjects with sleep durations of <6, 6, 7, 8 and ≥9 hours were 17.20%, 16.14%, 20.04%, 31.95% and 14.67%, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, the increased ORs of having hypertension were across those who reported ≥9 hours of sleep (men: 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.30; women: 1.19, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.32; general population: 1.17, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.26). The odds of hypertension was relatively flat until around 6.81 hours of sleep duration and then started to increase rapidly afterwards in subjects and a J-shaped pattern was observed. There was a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and hypertension in females. CONCLUSION: Long sleep duration was significantly associated with hypertension and a J-shaped pattern was observed among rural adults in southwest China, independent of potential confounders. However, this association was not obvious between short sleep duration and hypertension.