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The MIST2 (Second Multicentre Intrapleural Sepsis Trial) trial showed that combined intrapleural use of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and recombinant human DNase was effective when compared with single agents or placebo. However, the treatment costs are significant and overall cost-effectiveness of combined therapy remains unclear.An economic evaluation of the MIST2 trial was performed to assess the cost-effectiveness of combined therapy. Costs included were those related to study medications, initial hospital stay and subsequent hospitalisations. Outcomes were measured in terms of life-years gained. All costs were reported in euro and in 2016 prices.Mean annual costs were lowest in the t-PA-DNase group (EUR 10 605 for t-PA, EUR 17 856 for DNase, EUR 13 483 for placebo and EUR 7248 for t-PA-DNase; p=0.209). Mean 1-year life expectancy was 0.988 for t-PA, 0.923 for DNase, and 0.969 for both placebo and t-PA-DNase (p=0.296). Both DNase and placebo were less effective, in terms of life-years gained, and more costly than t-PA. When placebo was compared with t-PA-DNase, the incremental cost per life-year gained of placebo was EUR 1.6 billion, with a probability of 0.85 of t-PA-DNase being cost-effective.This study demonstrates that combined t-PA-DNase is likely to be highly cost-effective. In light of this evidence, a definitive trial designed to facilitate a thorough economic evaluation is warranted to provide further evidence on the cost-effectiveness of this promising combined intervention.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur Respir J

Publication Date