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Objective: To describe the characteristics of cooking and heating fuel use in participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study. Methods: The CKB study recruited 512 891 adults from 10 areas in China during 2004-2008. Information on cooking fuel and heating fuel was collected using a questionnaire in baseline survey. The proportions of various fuels used in different areas, in different populations, and at different time points were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 52.1% participants used solid fuel for cooking or heating. Rural areas had higher prevalence of solid fuel use than urban areas. The percentage of participants using solid fuel for cooking was 36.1% (coal 20.1%, wood/charcoal 16.0%); The percentage of participants using solid fuel for heating was 36.7% (coal 22.7%, wood/charcoal 14.0%). The prevalence of solid fuel use and the fuel type mainly used varied widely across 10 areas. The proportion of clean fuel use was lower in less-educated and lower-income people. Household coal and wood/charcoal use showed a declining trend, which was more remarkable in urban areas. Conclusion: There are still a large number of rural residents and people with low income relying on solid fuel in China, which is a serious public health concern.


Journal article


Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi

Publication Date





1426 - 1431


Cooking, Heating, Indoor air pollution, Solid fuel