CSF tests in the differential diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
Sanchez-Juan P., Green A., Ladogana A., Cuadrado-Corrales N., Sáanchez-Valle R., Mitrováa E., Stoeck K., Sklaviadis T., Kulczycki J., Hess K., Bodemer M., Slivarichová D., Saiz A., Calero M., Ingrosso L., Knight R., Janssens ACJW., van Duijn CM., Zerr I.
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of various brain-derived proteins (14-3-3, Tau, neuron specific enolase [NSE], and S100b) in the CSF of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and to analyze biologic factors that modify these parameters. METHODS: CSF was tested for 14-3-3, Tau, NSE, and S100b in 1,859 patients with sporadic, genetic, iatrogenic, and variant CJD, and in 1,117 controls. RESULTS: The highest sensitivity was achieved for 14-3-3 and Tau in sporadic CJD (85% and 86%), and a combined determination of 14-3-3 and Tau, S100b, or NSE increased the sensitivity to over 93%. A multivariate analysis showed that the sensitivity of all tests was highest in patients with the shortest disease duration, age at onset >40 years, and homozygosity at codon 129 of the prion protein gene. In a group of patients with repeated lumbar punctures, a second test also increased the diagnostic sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of elevated levels of brain-derived proteins in the CSF in patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a valuable diagnostic test. A second lumbar puncture may be of value in patients with atypical clinical course in whom the first test was negative.