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During the past decade, there has been an increase in the awareness of infections associated with pregnancy and delivery. The most significant cause of post-partum infection is caesarean section; 20-25% of operations are followed by wound infections, endometritis or urinary tract infections. Approximately 13% of women in the UK undergo operative vaginal delivery (OVD) with forceps or vacuum, which is also associated with an increased risk of infection, estimated at 0.7%-16% of these deliveries. Despite this, previous reviews have identified only one small trial of antibiotic prophylaxis in 393 women and concluded that there was insufficient evidence to support the routine use of prophylactic antibiotics after OVD. The ANODE trial, a multicentre, blinded, placebo-controlled trial from the UK, is due to report findings from more than 3400 women in 2019 and will be the largest study to date of antibiotic prophylaxis following OVD.

Original publication




Journal article


Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol

Publication Date





93 - 106


Fever, Infection, Operative vaginal delivery, Post-partum, Pregnancy, Sepsis, Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Endometritis, Extraction, Obstetrical, Female, Humans, Perineum, Pregnancy, Puerperal Disorders, Risk Factors, Sepsis, Urinary Tract Infections, Wound Infection