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BACKGROUND: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often used in personalisation of cancer treatments. Analysis of large data sets to uncover predictive biomarkers by specialists can be enormously time-consuming. Here we investigated crowdsourcing as a means of reliably analysing immunostained cancer samples to discover biomarkers predictive of cancer survival. METHODS: We crowdsourced the analysis of bladder cancer TMA core samples through the smartphone app 'Reverse the Odds'. Scores from members of the public were pooled and compared to a gold standard set scored by appropriate specialists. We also used crowdsourced scores to assess associations with disease-specific survival. RESULTS: Data were collected over 721 days, with 4,744,339 classifications performed. The average time per classification was approximately 15 s, with approximately 20,000 h total non-gaming time contributed. The correlation between crowdsourced and expert H-scores (staining intensity × proportion) varied from 0.65 to 0.92 across the markers tested, with six of 10 correlation coefficients at least 0.80. At least two markers (MRE11 and CK20) were significantly associated with survival in patients with bladder cancer, and a further three markers showed results warranting expert follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Crowdsourcing through a smartphone app has the potential to accurately screen IHC data and greatly increase the speed of biomarker discovery.

Original publication




Journal article


Br J Cancer

Publication Date





220 - 229


Biomarkers, Tumor, Cell Phone, Crowdsourcing, Female, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Keratin-20, MRE11 Homologue Protein, Male, Middle Aged, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms