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OBJECTIVES: We examined whether area deprivation influenced risk of Type 2 diabetes, fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance over and above the effect of individual socio-economic position (SEP) measured across the life course. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 4286 women aged 60 to 79 years from 457 British electoral wards in 23 towns. RESULTS: Area deprivation was positively associated with diagnosed [odds ratio (OR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 1.53, per quintile of area deprivation, n = 2895], but not undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes after adjustment for individual life-course SEP. This association was robust to adjustment for adult health behaviours and physiological risk factors. Insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) score] increased by 1.90% (95% CI 0.01, 3.82, n = 2526) per quintile of area deprivation after adjustment for individual SEP, while fasting blood glucose increased by 0.69% (95% CI 0.16, 1.22, n = 2875) after adjustment for individual SEP. CONCLUSIONS: Area level deprivation independently influences diagnosed Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and fasting blood glucose. Examination of more specific characteristics of places is needed to understand the mechanisms by which these effects arise.

Original publication




Journal article


Diabet Med

Publication Date





1462 - 1468


Aged, Blood Glucose, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diabetic Angiopathies, Female, Humans, Insulin Resistance, Life Style, Middle Aged, Poverty, Risk Factors, Socioeconomic Factors, United Kingdom