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Risk factors associated with transmission of sporadic norovirus (NV; formerly Norwalk-like virus)/Mexico strain were identified in a seroepidemiological study conducted in rural Mexico. Acquisition of Mexico strain IgA antibodies was age-related; 34% of 1-4-year-olds were seropositive, compared with 81% of adults (P<.001). After 12 months, 42% of 1-4-year-olds showed a seroresponse to Mexico strain, compared with 27% of adults (P<.01). Personal and domestic hygiene measures, such as hand washing, general cleanliness of the mother's clothing, and the type of room assigned for cooking were significantly associated with odds of a seroresponse. For infants, having a dog in or near the home was a risk factor for seroresponse (P<.01), whereas, for older children, the mother's involvement in agricultural activities was a risk factor (P<.001). This study provides initial evidence of risk factors associated with sporadic NV infection. Data indicate some similarities to risk factors associated with outbreaks of NV infection.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date





2027 - 2036


Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Antibodies, Viral, Caliciviridae Infections, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Gastroenteritis, Housing, Humans, Hygiene, Immunoenzyme Techniques, Infant, Logistic Models, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Mexico, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Norovirus, Rural Population, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Social Class