Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of subpreputial penile wetness and to investigate the association between current levels of penile wetness and HIV infection. METHODS: Male attenders at a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Durban, South Africa were enrolled and treated for their presenting sexually transmitted infection complaint. They were asked to return after 14 days when a structured questionnaire was administered, and the degree of wetness of the glans penis and coronal sulcus was assessed clinically. RESULTS: Six hundred and fifty men were enrolled, and 488 (75%) returned. Three hundred eighty-six uncircumcised men were included for statistical analysis of whom 215 (56%) were HIV positive. One hundred ninety-six (50.8%) had no penile wetness, and 190 (49.2%) had penile wetness. In the adjusted analysis, penile wetness was associated with younger age, low level of attained education, low income, higher lifetime numbers of sexual partners, and not washing after sex. The prevalence of HIV was greater in those with penile wetness 126 of 190 (66.3%) compared with 90 of 196 (45.9%) with no penile wetness, crude prevalence odds ratio 2.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-3.50, P=or<0.001), crude prevalence relative risk 1.44 (95% CI, 1.23-1.63, P=or<0.001), and adjusted for predictors of HIV, confounders and herpes type 2 antibodies, odds ratio 2.38 (95% CI, 1.42-3.97, P=or<0.001), and relative risk 1.46 (95% CI, 1.19-1.68, P=or<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show an association between subpreputial penile wetness and HIV. Consideration should be given to providing advice about improving penile hygiene in uncircumcised men in areas where HIV is a significant problem. Good penile hygiene should also be promoted at the community level to become a desirable social norm.

Original publication

DOI

10.1097/01.qai.0000225014.61192.98

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr

Publication Date

09/2006

Volume

43

Pages

69 - 77

Keywords

Adult, African Continental Ancestry Group, Circumcision, Male, HIV Infections, Humans, Male, Odds Ratio, Penile Diseases, South Africa, Surveys and Questionnaires