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Type V osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) presents with moderate-to-severe skeletal deformity and is characterized by hyperplastic callus formation at fracture sites and calcification of the interosseous membranes of the forearm and lower leg. The facial dysmorphism is not well characterized and has not been described in previous reports. Inheritance is autosomal dominant, although the genetic aetiology remained unknown until very recently. The aims of this study were to establish the genetic aetiology in patients with type V OI and further characterize patients with this condition, and to ascertain whether they have a similar clinical phenotype and facial dysmorphism. Three families (one mother-daughter pair and two singletons) were identified with the above features and further investigations (molecular genetic analysis and skin biopsy including electron microscopy, histology and collagen species analysis) were performed. Accurate phenotyping of patients with type V OI was performed. PCR amplification was performed using the Sheffield Diagnostic Genetics Service pyrosequencing assay for the interferon-induced transmembrane protein-5 (IFITM5) gene. All the patients had been confirmed to have a heterozygous variant, c.[-14C>T];[=], in the 5′-UTR of the IFITM5 gene, which is located in the transcribed region of this gene. This recurrent mutation, in IFITM5, also known as bone-restricted interferon-induced transmembrane protein-like protein or BRIL, encodes a protein with a function in bone formation and plays an important role in osteoblast formation. All four patients in this study appear to have similar clinical features and facial dysmorphism, including a short, up-turned nose, a small mouth, a prominent chin and greyish-blue sclerae. Skin biopsy in one patient showed clumping of elastic fibres and normal biochemical analysis of collagen. We have been able to characterize patients with type V OI further and confirm the genetic aetiology in this distinct form of OI. Accurate phenotyping (including describing the common facial features) before investigations is important to enable the useful interpretation of genetic results and/or target-specific gene testing. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Original publication




Journal article


Clinical Dysmorphology

Publication Date





93 - 101