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Alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD) represents a major public health burden. Identification of high-risk individuals would allow efficient targeting of public health interventions. Here, we show significant interactions between pattern of drinking, genetic predisposition (polygenic risk score, PRS) and diabetes mellitus, and risk of incident ARLD, in 312,599 actively drinking adults in UK Biobank. Binge and heavy binge drinking significantly increase the risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis (ARC), with higher genetic predisposition further amplifying the risk. Further, we demonstrate a pronounced interaction between heavy binge drinking and high PRS, resulting in a relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) of 6.07. Diabetes consistently elevates ARC risk across all drinking and PRS categories, and showed significant interaction with both binge patterns and genetic risk. Overall, we demonstrate synergistic effects of binge drinking, genetics, and diabetes on ARC, with potential to identify high-risk individuals for targeted interventions.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Commun

Publication Date





Adult, Humans, Alcohol Drinking, Binge Drinking, Ethanol, Diabetes Mellitus, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Liver Diseases