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PURPOSE: The incidence of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is increasing, however, its aetiology remains unclear due to a lack of data from large-scale prospective cohorts. We examined modifiable risk factors in relation to SIC overall and by histological subtype. METHODS: We analysed 450,107 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate univariable and multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During an average of 14.1 years of follow-up, 160 incident SICs (62 carcinoids, 51 adenocarcinomas) were identified. Whilst univariable models revealed a positive association for current versus never smokers and SIC (HR, 95% CI: 1.77, 1.21-2.60), this association attenuated in multivariable models. In energy-adjusted models, there was an inverse association across vegetable intake tertiles for SIC overall (HRT3vsT1, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.32-0.71, p-trend: 

Original publication




Journal article


Cancer Causes Control

Publication Date





927 - 937


Adenocarcinoma, Alcohol, Cancer, Carcinoid, Diet, Lifestyle, Small intestine, Smoking, Humans, Prospective Studies, Diet, Risk Factors, Adenocarcinoma, Carcinoid Tumor, Intestinal Neoplasms, Life Style, Proportional Hazards Models, Europe