Body mass index and physical activity in relation to the incidence of hip fracture in postmenopausal women.
Armstrong MEG., Spencer EA., Cairns BJ., Banks E., Pirie K., Green J., Wright FL., Reeves GK., Beral V., Million Women Study Collaborators None.
Hip fracture risk is known to increase with physical inactivity and decrease with obesity, but there is little information on their combined effects. We report on the separate and combined effects of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on hospital admissions for hip fracture among postmenopausal women in a large prospective UK study. Baseline information on body size, physical activity, and other relevant factors was collected in 1996-2001, and participants were followed for incident hip fractures by record linkage to National Health Service (NHS) hospital admission data. Cox regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks of hip fracture. Among 925,345 postmenopausal women followed for an average of 6.2 years, 2582 were admitted to hospital with an incident hip fracture. Hip fracture risk increased with decreasing BMI: Compared with obese women (BMI of 30+ kg/m(2) ), relative risks were 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-1.97)] for BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2) and 2.55 (95% CI 2.22-2.94) for BMI of 20.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2). The increase in fracture risk per unit decrease in BMI was significantly greater among lean women than among overweight women (p