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BackgroundVery preterm (VP) infants (born 28 to <32 weeks of gestation) are at risk of cognitive delays and lower educational attainments. These risks are linked to anomalies in attention and information processing that emerge in the first years of life. Early interventions targeting attention functioning may equip VP infants with key building blocks for later attainments.MethodsWe tested the feasibility of a randomised trial where VP infants took part in a computerised cognitive procedure to train attention control. Ten healthy VP infants aged approximately 12 months (corrected age) and randomly allocated with 1:1 ratio to the training (interactive computerised presentations) or an active control procedure completed the study. Before and after the training programme, participating infants completed a battery of screen-based attention tests, naturalistic attention and communication tasks, and temperament assessments. In a previous study we analysed the data concerning feasibility (e.g. recruitment and retention). In the paper presented here we considered the infants' performance and used Bayesian regression in order to provide credible treatment estimates considering the data collected.ResultsEstimates indicate moderate treatment effects in visual memory: compared to controls, trained infants displayed improvements equivalent to 0.59 SD units. Trained infants also improved in their abilities to attend to less salient stimuli presentations by 0.82 SD units, compared to controls. However, results did not indicate relevant gains in attention habituation or disengagement. We also reported moderate improvements in focused attention during naturalistic tasks, and in directing other people's attention to shared objects.DiscussionThe results warrant further investigation concerning the effectiveness of training attention control in VP infants, extending this line of research beyond our small and homogeneous sample of healthy VP infants. This study also emphasises the utility of Bayesian approaches in estimating potentially relevant effects in small samples or exploratory studies. The scope for further research on early attention control training is discussed in light of studies indicating VP children's susceptibility to positive environmental inputs.Trial registrationRegistration ID: NCT03896490. Retrospectively registered at Clinical Trials Protocol Registration and Results System (

Original publication




Journal article


PloS one

Publication Date





School of Nursing & Midwifery, Queen's University Belfast, MBC, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.


Humans, Infant, Premature, Diseases, Bayes Theorem, Feasibility Studies, Communication, Child, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Infant, Premature