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BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not improve outcome compared with medical therapy (MT) in patients with stable coronary artery disease, but PCI was guided by angiography alone. FAME 2 trial (Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation) compared PCI guided by fractional flow reserve with best MT in patients with stable coronary artery disease to assess clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: A total of 888 patients with stable single-vessel or multivessel coronary artery disease with reduced fractional flow reserve were randomly assigned to PCI plus MT (n=447) or MT alone (n=441). Major adverse cardiac events included death, myocardial infarction, and urgent revascularization. Costs were calculated on the basis of resource use and Medicare reimbursement rates. Changes in quality-adjusted life-years were assessed with utilities determined by the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions health survey at baseline and over follow-up. RESULTS: Major adverse cardiac events at 3 years were significantly lower in the PCI group compared with the MT group (10.1% versus 22.0%; P<0.001), primarily as a result of a lower rate of urgent revascularization (4.3% versus 17.2%; P<0.001). Death and myocardial infarction were numerically lower in the PCI group (8.3% versus 10.4%; P=0.28). Angina was significantly less severe in the PCI group at all follow-up points to 3 years. Mean initial costs were higher in the PCI group ($9944 versus $4440; P<0.001) but by 3 years were similar between the 2 groups ($16 792 versus $16 737; P=0.94). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for PCI compared with MT was $17 300 per quality-adjusted life-year at 2 years and $1600 per quality-adjusted life-year at 3 years. The above findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: PCI of lesions with reduced fractional flow reserve improves long-term outcome and is economically attractive compared with MT alone in patients with stable coronary artery disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: Unique identifier: NCT01132495.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





480 - 487


angiography, coronary artery disease, fractional flow reserve, myocardial, percutaneous coronary intervention, stents, Cardiac Catheterization, Coronary Angiography, Coronary Artery Disease, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Europe, Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial, Health Care Costs, Humans, North America, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Predictive Value of Tests, Prospective Studies, Quality of Life, Risk Factors, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome