A pilot study of streptokinase-induced endothelial injury and platelet activation following acute myocardial infarction.
Lip GY., Lydakis C., Nuttall SL., Landray MJ., Watson RD., Blann AD.
OBJECTIVE: To relate the changes in serum vitamin E, an essential antioxidant, to changes in fibrinogen, as well as indices of endothelial damage [as indicated by plasma markers, soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) and von Willebrand factor (vWf), and an index of platelet activation (soluble P selectin (sPsel)], in myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective longitudinal pilot study in a teaching hospital Coronary Care Unit. SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTION: Seventeen patients (12 men: mean age (62 years +/- SD 11 years) admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), who were given thrombolytic therapy, and 59 healthy controls. RESULTS: Baseline levels of fibrinogen (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.0055) and vWf (P < 0.001) were significantly higher than controls, but sPsel, sTM or vitamin E levels were not significantly different. Following thrombolysis, as expected, median concentrations of plasma fibrinogen fell profoundly (Friedman ANOVA P < 0.001) so that after 45 min, levels were undetectable in 13 patients. At 24-h median fibrinogen concentration had recovered to approximately 30% of baseline (P < 0.01) and was still undetectable in three patients. Levels of vWf and sPsel increased steadily, reaching significance after three hours (both P < 0.05). However, levels of sTM rose immediately after thrombolysis, peaking between 1 and 3 h, and remained elevated at 24 h. These increases corresponded to a simultaneous early fall in serum vitamin E concentrations. CONCLUSION: The present pilot study demonstrates significant endothelial damage and platelet activation in association with increased oxidative stress following streptokinase therapy for AMI.