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BACKGROUND: Bioimpedance-based estimates of fluid overload have been widely studied and systematically reviewed in populations of those undergoing dialysis, but data from populations with heart failure or nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review of studies using whole-body bioimpedance from populations with heart failure and nondialysis CKD that reported associations with mortality, cardiovascular outcomes and/or CKD progression. We searched MEDLINE, Embase databases and the Cochrane CENTRAL registry from inception to March 14, 2022. We identified 31 eligible studies: 20 heart failure and 11 CKD cohorts, with 2 studies including over 1000 participants. A wide range of various bioimpedance methods were used across the studies (heart failure: 8 parameters; CKD: 6). Studies generally reported positive associations, but between-study differences in bioimpedance methods, fluid overload exposure definitions and modeling approaches precluded meta-analysis. The largest identified study was in nondialysis CKD (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort, 3751 participants), which reported adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for phase angle < 5.59 vs ≥ 6.4 of 2.02 (1.67-2.43) for all-cause mortality; 1.80 (1.46-2.23) for heart failure events; and 1.78 (1.56-2.04) for CKD progression. CONCLUSIONS: Bioimpedance indices of fluid overload are associated with risk of important cardiorenal outcomes in heart failure and CKD. Facilitation of more widespread use of bioimpedance requires consensus on the optimum device, standardized analytical methods and larger studies, including more detailed characterization of cardiac and renal phenotypes.

Original publication




Journal article


J Card Fail

Publication Date



Bioimpedance, chronic kidney disease, fluid overload, heart failure