Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

IntroductionThe individual prognostic factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are unclear. For this reason, we aimed to present a state-of-the-art systematic review and meta-analysis on the prognostic factors for adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients.MethodsWe systematically reviewed PubMed from 1 January 2020 to 26 July 2020 to identify non-overlapping studies examining the association of any prognostic factor with any adverse outcome in patients with COVID-19. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and between-study heterogeneity was quantified using I2 statistic. Presence of small-study effects was assessed by applying the Egger's regression test.ResultsWe identified 428 eligible articles, which were used in a total of 263 meta-analyses examining the association of 91 unique prognostic factors with 11 outcomes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, obstructive sleep apnoea, pharyngalgia, history of venous thromboembolism, sex, coronary heart disease, cancer, chronic liver disease, COPD, dementia, any immunosuppressive medication, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatological disease and smoking were associated with at least one outcome and had >1000 events, p<0.005, I2<50%, 95% prediction interval excluding the null value, and absence of small-study effects in the respective meta-analysis. The risk of bias assessment using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool indicated high risk of bias in 302 out of 428 articles for study participation, 389 articles for adjustment for other prognostic factors and 396 articles for statistical analysis and reporting.ConclusionsOur findings could be used for prognostic model building and guide patient selection for randomised clinical trials.

Original publication




Journal article


European Respiratory Journal


European Respiratory Society (ERS)

Publication Date





2002964 - 2002964