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BACKGROUND: Infertility, and fertility treatment, are associated with psychological distress that may influence subsequent mental health including postpartum depression and anxiety. METHODS: Data for women who had a livebirth between 1991 and 2013 were drawn from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Conception history prior to their first recorded birth was categorised as 'no fertility problems', 'untreated subfertility', ovulation induction (OI), and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Depression and/or anxiety in the 12 months postpartum were identified using records of diagnoses, symptoms, and prescriptions. Prevalence was compared, and odds ratios estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 235,127 mothers, 31,947 (13.6%) had evidence of postpartum depression and/or anxiety. Mothers in the ART group had 22% lower odds of postnatal depression and/or anxiety compared to mothers in the fertile group (OR 0.78; 95% CI [0.70-0.86]; p 

Original publication




Journal article


J Affect Disord

Publication Date





266 - 273


ART, Anxiety, CPRD, Fertility problems, Postpartum depression, Routine data, Anxiety, Depression, Postpartum, Female, Humans, Infertility, Postpartum Period, Pregnancy, Reproductive Techniques, Assisted, Risk Factors