Bcl-xL promotes metastasis independent of its anti-apoptotic activity
Choi S., Chen Z., Tang LH., Fang Y., Shin SJ., Panarelli NC., Chen YT., Li Y., Jiang X., Du YCN.
Bcl-xL suppresses mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and is frequently overexpressed in cancer to promote cancer cell survival. Bcl-xL also promotes metastasis. However, it is unclear whether this metastatic function is dependent on its anti-apoptotic activity in the mitochondria. Here we demonstrate that Bcl-xL promotes metastasis independent of its anti-apoptotic activity. We show that apoptosis-defective Bcl-xL mutants and an engineered Bcl-xL targeted to the nucleus promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion and stemness in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (panNET) and breast cancer cell lines. However, Bcl-xL proteins targeted to the mitochondria or outside of the nucleus do not have these functions. We confirm our findings in spontaneous and xenograft mouse models. Furthermore, Bcl-xL exerts metastatic function through epigenetic modification of the TGFβ promoter to increase TGFβ signalling. Consistent with these findings, we detect nuclear Bcl-xL in human metastatic panNETs. Taken together, the metastatic function of Bcl-xL is independent of its anti-apoptotic activity and its residence in the mitochondria.