Is dependent personality disorder associated with mild cognitive impairment and dementia in Central Africa? A result from the EPIDEMCA programme.
Pilleron S., Clément J-P., Ndamba-Bandzouzi B., Mbelesso P., Dartigues J-F., Preux P-M., Guerchet M.
ABSTRACT Background: To date, no studies have examined the relationship between cognitive disorders and personality disorders. Our aim was to investigate the association between dependent personality disorder (DPD) and cognitive disorders in Central Africa. Methods: Between 2011 and 2012, a cross-sectional multicenter population-based study was carried out in rural and urban areas of the Central African Republic (CAR) and the Republic of Congo (ROC). Participants aged ≥65 years were interviewed using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSI-D). Elderly people who performed poorly (CSI-D cognitive tests score or COGSCORE ≤ 24.5/30) were clinically assessed by neurologists and underwent further psychometric testing. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition and Petersen criteria were required for the diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) respectively. DPD was assessed using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+. Socio-demographic, vascular, and psychological factors were also documented. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations. Results: Of the 2,002 participants screened, 860 and 912 had data for cognitive status and DPD in CAR and ROC respectively. In fully adjusted models, DPD was significantly associated with MCI in ROC (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.7) and CAR (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.0) and with dementia only in ROC (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.0-11.7). Conclusions: DPD was associated with cognitive disorders among elderly people in Central Africa. This association should be confirmed in other contexts. This study paves the way for research on the association between personality and cognitive impairment in Africa.