Molecular Classification Improves Risk Assessment in Adult BCR-ABL1-negative B-ALL.
Paietta E., Roberts KG., Wang V., Gu Z., Buck G., Pei D., Cheng C., Levine RL., Abdel-Wahab O., Cheng Z., Wu G., Qu C., Shi L., Pounds SB., Willman CL., Harvey RC., Racevskis J., Barinka J., Zhang Y., Dewald GW., Ketterling RP., Alejos D., Lazarus HM., Luger S., Foroni L., Patel B., Fielding AK., Melnick A., Marks DI., Moorman AV., Wiernik PH., Rowe JM., Tallman MS., Goldstone AH., Mullighan CG., Litzow MR.
Genomic classification has improved risk assignment of pediatric but not adult B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The international UKALLXII/ECOG-ACRIN E2993 (NCT00002514) trial accrued 1229 BCR-ABL1-negative adolescent/adult B-ALL patients (aged 14-65 years). While 93% of patients achieved remission, 41% relapsed at a median of 13 months (range 28 days to 12 years). Five-year overall survival (5yr-OS) was 42% (95% CI, 39, 44). Transcriptome sequencing (n=238), gene expression profiling (n=210), cytogenetics (n=197) and fusion PCR (n=274) enabled genomic subtyping of 282 patient samples, of which 264 were eligible for trial, accounting for 64.5% of E2993 patients. Among patients in the outcome analysis, 29.5% of cases had favorable outcomes with 5yr-OS of 65-80% and were deemed standard-risk (DUX4-rearranged [9.2%], ETV6-RUNX1/-like [2.3%], TCF3-PBX1 [6.9%], PAX5 P80R [4.1%], high-hyperdiploid [6.9%]); 50.2% had high-risk genotypes with 5yr-OS of 0-27% (Ph-like [21.2%], KMT2A-AFF1 [12%], low-hypodiploid/near-haploid [14.3%], BCL2/MYC-rearranged [2.8%]); and 20.3% had intermediate-risk genotypes with 5yr-OS of 33-45% (PAX5alt [12.4%], ZNF384/-like [5.1%], MEF2D-rearranged [2.8%]). IKZF1 alterations occurred in 86% of Ph-like and TP53 mutations occurred in low-hypodiploid (54%) and BCL2/MYC-rearranged patients (33%), but were not independently associated with outcome. Of patients considered high-risk for relapse based on presenting age and WBC count, 40% harbored subtype-defining genetic alterations associated with standard- or intermediate-risk outcomes. We identified distinct immunophenotypic features for DUX4-rearranged, PAX5 P80R, ZNF384-R/-like and Ph-like genotypes. These data in a large adult B-ALL cohort treated with a non-risk-adapted approach on a single trial show the prognostic importance of genomic analyses which may translate into future therapeutic benefits.