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Total treatment costs by stage at diagnosis are estimated for a sample of breast cancer patients. At 4 years, stage 4 cancers emerge as being more expensive to treat than those at earlier stages, although this difference fails to achieve significance when expected lifetime costs are considered. The inclusion of treatment cost estimates in a screening model indicates that screening may increase expected treatment costs by a marginal amount, although the model also suggests that the cost-effectiveness ratio of breast cancer screening might be better than had originally been thought.

Original publication




Journal article


International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care

Publication Date





277 - 289