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Gonorrhea and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are major public health concerns globally. Dual antimicrobial therapy (mainly ceftriaxone 250-500 mg × 1 plus azithromycin 1-2 g × 1) is currently recommended in many countries. These dual therapies have high cure rates, have likely been involved in decreasing the level of cephalosporin resistance internationally, and inhibit the spread of AMR gonococcal strains. However, ceftriaxone-resistant strains are currently spreading internationally, predominately associated with travel to Asia. Furthermore, the first global treatment failure with recommended dual therapy was reported in 2016 and the first isolates with combined ceftriaxone resistance and high-level azithromycin resistance were reported in 2018 in the UK and Australia. New antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea are essential and, of the few antimicrobials in clinical development, zoliflodacin particularly appears promising. Holistic actions are imperative. These include an enhanced advocacy; prevention, early diagnosis, contact tracing, treatment, test-of-cure, and additional measures for effective management of anogenital and pharyngeal gonorrhea; antimicrobial stewardship; surveillance of infection, AMR and treatment failures; and intensified research, for example, regarding rapid molecular point-of-care detection of gonococci and AMR, novel AMR determinants, new antimicrobials, and an effective gonococcal vaccine, which is the only sustainable solution for management and control of gonorrhea.

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37 - 58


Antimicrobial resistance, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, Current treatment, Dual antimicrobial therapy, Future treatment, Neisseria gonorrhoeae