Cost-effectiveness of intrapleural use of tissue plasminogen activator and DNase in pleural infection: evidence from the MIST2 randomised controlled trial.
Luengo-Fernandez R., Penz E., Dobson M., Psallidas I., Nunn AJ., Maskell NA., Rahman NM.
The MIST2 (Second Multicentre Intrapleural Sepsis Trial) trial showed that combined intrapleural use of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and recombinant human DNase was effective when compared with single agents or placebo. However, the treatment costs are significant and overall cost-effectiveness of combined therapy remains unclear.An economic evaluation of the MIST2 trial was performed to assess the cost-effectiveness of combined therapy. Costs included were those related to study medications, initial hospital stay and subsequent hospitalisations. Outcomes were measured in terms of life-years gained. All costs were reported in euro and in 2016 prices.Mean annual costs were lowest in the t-PA-DNase group (EUR 10 605 for t-PA, EUR 17 856 for DNase, EUR 13 483 for placebo and EUR 7248 for t-PA-DNase; p=0.209). Mean 1-year life expectancy was 0.988 for t-PA, 0.923 for DNase, and 0.969 for both placebo and t-PA-DNase (p=0.296). Both DNase and placebo were less effective, in terms of life-years gained, and more costly than t-PA. When placebo was compared with t-PA-DNase, the incremental cost per life-year gained of placebo was EUR 1.6 billion, with a probability of 0.85 of t-PA-DNase being cost-effective.This study demonstrates that combined t-PA-DNase is likely to be highly cost-effective. In light of this evidence, a definitive trial designed to facilitate a thorough economic evaluation is warranted to provide further evidence on the cost-effectiveness of this promising combined intervention.