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Differences in health outcomes between meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters might relate to differences in dietary intakes between these diet groups. We assessed intakes of major protein-source foods and other food groups in six groups of meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study. The data were from 30,239 participants who answered questions regarding their consumption of meat, fish, dairy or eggs and completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 2010. Participants were categorized as regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. FFQ foods were categorized into 45 food groups and analysis of variance was used to test for differences between age-adjusted mean intakes of each food group by diet group. Regular meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans, respectively, consumed about a third, quarter and a fifth of their total energy intake from high protein-source foods. Compared with regular meat-eaters, low and non-meat-eaters consumed higher amounts of high-protein meat alternatives (soy, legumes, pulses, nuts, seeds) and other plant-based foods (whole grains, vegetables, fruits) and lower amounts of refined grains, fried foods, alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages. These findings provide insight into potential nutritional explanations for differences in health outcomes between diet groups.

Original publication

DOI

10.3390/nu11040824

Type

Journal article

Journal

Nutrients

Publication Date

11/04/2019

Volume

11

Keywords

cohort, diet, food intake, low-meat, vegans, vegetarians, Adult, Aged, Animals, Dairy Products, Diet, Diet, Vegan, Diet, Vegetarian, Dietary Proteins, Educational Status, Eggs, Energy Intake, Female, Fishes, Health Status, Humans, Male, Meat, Middle Aged, Neoplasms, Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Plant Proteins, Poultry, Prospective Studies, Social Class, United Kingdom