Genetic factors and insulin secretion: gene variants in the IGF genes.
't Hart LM., Fritsche A., Rietveld I., Dekker JM., Nijpels G., Machicao F., Stumvoll M., van Duijn CM., Häring HU., Heine RJ., Maassen JA., van Haeften TW.
IGFs are important regulators of pancreatic beta-cell development, growth, and maintenance. Mutations in the IGF genes have been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, birth weight, and obesity. These associations could result from changes in insulin secretion. We have analyzed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion using hyperglycemic clamps in carriers of a CA repeat in the IGF-I promoter and an ApaI polymorphism in the IGF-II gene. Normal and impaired glucose-tolerant subjects (n = 237) were independently recruited from three different populations in the Netherlands and Germany to allow independent replication of associations. Both first- and second-phase insulin secretion were not significantly different between the various IGF-I or IGF-II genotypes. Remarkably, noncarriers of the IGF-I CA repeat allele had both a reduced insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and disposition index (DI), suggesting an altered balance between insulin secretion and insulin action. Other diabetes-related parameters were not significantly different for both the IGF-I and IGF-II gene variant. We conclude that gene variants in the IGF-I and IGF-II genes are not associated with detectable variations in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in these three independent populations. Further studies are needed to examine the exact contributions of the IGF-I CA repeat alleles to variations in ISI and DI.