Genetic risk factors for cerebral small-vessel disease in hypertensive patients from a genetically isolated population.
Schuur M., van Swieten JC., Schol-Gelok S., Ikram MA., Vernooij MW., Liu F., Isaacs A., de Boer R., de Koning I., Niessen WJ., Vrooman H., Oostra BA., van der Lugt A., Breteler MMB., van Duijn CM.
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic cerebral lesions on MRI such as white matter lesions (WML), lacunes and microbleeds are commonly seen in older people. We examined the role of a series of candidate genes involved in blood pressure regulation and amyloid metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was embedded in a family-based cohort sampled from a Dutch genetically isolated population. We selected individuals between 55 and 75 years of age with hypertension (N=129). Volumes of WML and presence of lacunes and microbleeds were assessed with MRI. We studied three genes involved in blood pressure regulation (angiotensin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, α-adducin) and two genes involved in the amyloid pathway (apolipoprotein E (APOE) and sortilin-related receptor gene (SORL1)). RESULTS: All participants had WML (median volume, 3.1 ml; interquartile range, 1.5-6.5 ml); lacunar infarcts were present in 15.5% and microbleeds in 23.3%. Homozygosity for the APOE ε4 allele was associated with lacunes (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 19.3). Individuals carrying two copies of the variant allele of four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) located at the 3'-end of SORL1 (rs1699102, rs3824968, rs2282649, rs1010159) had significantly more often microbleeds (highest OR, 6.87; 95% CI, 1.78 to 26.44). CONCLUSION: The association of SORL1 with microbleeds suggests that the amyloid cascade is involved in the aetiology of microbleeds in populations with hypertension.