Shared genetic factors in migraine and depression: evidence from a genetic isolate.
Stam AH., de Vries B., Janssens ACJW., Vanmolkot KRJ., Aulchenko YS., Henneman P., Oostra BA., Frants RR., van den Maagdenberg AMJM., Ferrari MD., van Duijn CM., Terwindt GM.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the co-occurrence of migraine and depression and assess whether shared genetic factors may underlie both diseases. METHODS: Subjects were 2,652 participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family genetic isolate study. Migraine was diagnosed using a validated 3-stage screening method that included a telephone interview. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale and the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). The contribution of shared genetic factors in migraine and depression was investigated by comparing heritability estimates for migraine with and without adjustment for symptoms of depression, and by comparing the heritability scores of depression between migraineurs and controls. RESULTS: We identified 360 migraine cases: 209 had migraine without aura (MO) and 151 had migraine with aura (MA). Odds ratios for depression in patients with migraine were 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-1.70) for MO and 1.70 (95% CI 1.28-2.24) for MA. Heritability estimates were significant for all migraine (0.56), MO (0.77), and MA (0.96), and decreased after adjustment for symptoms of depression or use of antidepressant medication, in particular for MA. Comparison of the heritability scores for depression between patients with migraine and controls showed a genetic correlation between HADS-D score and MA. CONCLUSIONS: There is a bidirectional association between depression and migraine, in particular migraine with aura, which can be explained, at least partly, by shared genetic factors.