Nudging people with Type 2 diabetes towards better self-management through personalized risk communication: A pilot randomized controlled trial in primary care.
Rouyard T., Leal J., Baskerville R., Velardo C., Salvi D., Gray A.
Objectives: To assess the feasibility in routine primary care consultation and investigate the effect on risk recall and self-management of a new type of risk communication intervention based on behavioural economics ("nudge-based") for people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Forty adults with poorly controlled T2DM (HbA1c > 7.5%) were randomized to receive a personalized, nudge-based risk communication intervention (n = 20) or standard care (n = 20). Risk recall and self-management were evaluated at baseline and 12 weeks after the intervention. Results: Both in terms of feasibility and acceptability, this new risk communication intervention was very satisfactory. Study retention rate after 12 weeks was very high (90%) and participants were highly satisfied with the intervention (4.4 out of 5 on the COMRADE scale). Although not powered to identify significant between-group effects, the intervention significantly improved risk recall after 12 weeks and intentions to make lifestyle changes (dietary behaviour) compared to standard care. Conclusions: This pilot study provides the first evidence of the feasibility of implementing in primary care a nudge-based risk communication intervention for people with T2DM. Based on the promising results observed, an adequately powered trial to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on long-term self-management is judged feasible. As a result of this feasibility study, some minor adaptations to the intervention and study methods that would help to facilitate a definitive trial are also reported.