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Objective: To describe the regional and population-related differences in calcaneus bone mineral density (BMD) across ten regions of China. Methods: Based on the results: from the second Re-survey of China Kadoorie Biobank project, in which 5% of the surviving participants were interviewed during 2013-2014 and 24 677 participants aged 38-87 years were included in the study. We excluded those people with missing data for BMD and important variables. Calcaneus BMD was measured using the quantitative ultrasound bone densitometer. We analyzed four indexes, including broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), stiffness index (SI), and T score. Results The average calcaneus BMDs of the present population were: BUA (109.7±12.6) dB/MHz, SOS (1 554.7±45.6) m/s, SI (88.3±18.8), T score (-0.74±1.28). Urban residents showed higher calcaneus BMD, so as in men. The calcaneus BMD decreased by age, with a larger decline seen in women. Current smokers and postmenopausal women presented lower calcaneus BMD, while in those who frequently drank milk or yogurt or being physically more active, had higher calcaneus BMD. Conclusion: Calcaneus BMD varied greatly among people from the ten regions of CKB study and among participants having different demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors or health conditions.


Journal article


Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi

Publication Date





422 - 427


Calcaneus bone mineral density, Quantitative ultrasound system, Regional and population difference, Absorptiometry, Photon, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Bone Density, Calcaneus, China, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Residence Characteristics, Rural Population, Sex Factors, Ultrasonography, Urban Population