Handling Data Quality Issues to Estimate the Spanish EQ-5D-5L Value Set Using a Hybrid Interval Regression Approach.
Ramos-Goñi JM., Craig BM., Oppe M., Ramallo-Fariña Y., Pinto-Prades JL., Luo N., Rivero-Arias O.
BACKGROUND: The Spanish five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) valuation study was the first to use the EuroQol Valuation Technology protocol, including composite time trade-off (C-TTO) and discrete choice experiments (DCE). In this study, its investigators noticed that some interviewers did not fully explain the C-TTO task to respondents. Evidence from a follow-up study in 2014 confirmed that when interviewers followed the protocol, the distribution of C-TTO responses widened. OBJECTIVES: To handle the data quality issues in the C-TTO responses by estimating a hybrid interval regression model to produce a Spanish EQ-5D-5L value set. METHODS: Four different models were tested. Model 0 integrated C-TTO and DCE responses in a hybrid model and models 1 to 3 altered the interpretation of the C-TTO responses: model 1 allowed for censoring of the C-TTO responses, whereas model 2 incorporated interval responses and model 3 included the interviewer-specific protocol violations. For external validation, the predictions of the four models were compared with those of the follow-up study using the Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. RESULTS: This stepwise approach to modeling C-TTO and DCE responses improved the concordance between the valuation and follow-up studies (concordance correlation coefficient: 0.948 [model 0], 0.958 [model 1], 0.952 [model 2], and 0.989 [model 3]). We recommend the estimates from model 3, because its hybrid interval regression model addresses the data quality issues found in the valuation study. CONCLUSIONS: Protocol violations may occur in any valuation study; handling them in the analysis can improve external validity. The resulting EQ-5D-5L value set (model 3) can be applied to inform Spanish health technology assessments.