Impact of a functional polymorphism in the PAR-1 gene promoter in COPD and COPD exacerbations.
Platé M., Lawson PJ., Hill MR., Quint JK., Kumari M., Laurent GJ., Wedzicha JA., Chambers RC., Hurst JR.
Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) plays a key role in mediating the interplay between coagulation and inflammation in response to injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2227744G>A in modulating PAR-1/F2R gene expression in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and COPD exacerbations. The function of the rs2227744G>A SNP was investigated by using reporter gene assays. The frequency of the polymorphism in the UK population was assessed by genotyping 8,579 healthy individuals from the Whitehall II and English Longitudinal Study of Ageing cohorts. The rs2227744G>A SNP was genotyped in a carefully phenotyped cohort of 203 COPD cases and matched controls. The results were further replicated in two different COPD cohorts. The minor allele of the rs2227744G>A polymorphism was found to increase F2R expression by 2.6-fold (P < 0.001). The rs2227744G>A SNP was not significantly associated with COPD, or with lung function, in all cohorts. The minor allele of the SNP was found to be associated with protection from frequent exacerbations (P = 0.04) in the cohort of COPD patients for which exacerbation frequency was available. Considering exacerbations as a continuous variable, the presence of the minor allele was associated with a significantly lower COPD exacerbation rate (3.03 vs. 1.98 exacerbations/year, Mann-Whitney U-test P = 0.04). Taken together, these data do not support a role for the rs2227744G>A F2R polymorphism in the development of COPD but suggest a protective role for this polymorphism from frequent exacerbations. Studies in separate cohorts to replicate these findings are warranted.