Nutrient-wide association study of 57 foods/nutrients and epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study and the Netherlands Cohort Study.
Merritt MA., Tzoulaki I., van den Brandt PA., Schouten LJ., Tsilidis KK., Weiderpass E., Patel CJ., Tjønneland A., Hansen L., Overvad K., His M., Dartois L., Boutron-Ruault M-C., Fortner RT., Kaaks R., Aleksandrova K., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Bamia C., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Ricceri F., Mattiello A., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Onland-Moret NC., Peeters PH., Skeie G., Jareid M., Quirós JR., Obón-Santacana M., Sánchez M-J., Chamosa S., Huerta JM., Barricarte A., Dias JA., Sonestedt E., Idahl A., Lundin E., Wareham NJ., Khaw K-T., Travis RC., Ferrari P., Riboli E., Gunter MJ.
BACKGROUND: Studies of the role of dietary factors in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development have been limited, and no specific dietary factors have been consistently associated with EOC risk. OBJECTIVE: We used a nutrient-wide association study approach to systematically test the association between dietary factors and invasive EOC risk while accounting for multiple hypothesis testing by using the false discovery rate and evaluated the findings in an independent cohort. DESIGN: We assessed dietary intake amounts of 28 foods/food groups and 29 nutrients estimated by using dietary questionnaires in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study (n = 1095 cases). We selected 4 foods/nutrients that were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk when comparing the extreme quartiles of intake in the EPIC study (false discovery rate = 0.43) and evaluated these factors in the NLCS (Netherlands Cohort Study; n = 383 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: None of the 4 dietary factors that were associated with EOC risk in the EPIC study (cholesterol, polyunsaturated and saturated fat, and bananas) were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk in the NLCS; however, in meta-analysis of the EPIC study and the NLCS, we observed a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1; overall HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.41). CONCLUSION: In the meta-analysis of both studies, there was a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat.